zaterdag 30 juli 2011
Big Request of the Commander (1953) Counter-Intelligence Surveys, Security Clearances - CIA Archives
MP4 - 66,2MB - 23m13s - Youtube rip
Counter-intelligence or counterintelligence (CI) refers to efforts made by intelligence organizations to prevent hostile or enemy intelligence organizations from successfully gathering and collecting intelligence against them. National intelligence programs, and, by extension, the overall defenses of nations, are vulnerable to attack. It is the role of intelligence cycle security to protect the process embodied in the intelligence cycle, and that which it defends. A number of disciplines go into protecting the intelligence cycle. One of the challenges is there is a wide range of potential threats, so threat assessment, if complete, is a complex task.
Military organizations have their own counterintelligence forces, capable of conducting protective operations both at home and when deployed abroad. Depending on the country, there can be various mixtures of civilian and military in foreign operations. For example, while offensive counterintelligence is a mission of the US CIA's National Clandestine Service, defensive counterintelligence is a mission of the U.S. Diplomatic Security Service (DSS), Department of State, who work on protective security for personnel and information processed abroad at US Embassies and Consulates.
There is much value in taking a broad look at CI. A few examples of national CI and CT structure are used examples here; see the separate article on Counterintelligence and Counterterror Organizations. Thoughtful analysts have pointed out that it may well be a source of positive intelligence on the opposition's priorities and thinking, not just a defensive measure. "Charles Burton Marshall wrote that his college studies failed to teach him about espionage, the role of intelligence services, or the role of propaganda. "States' propensities for leading double lives—having at once forensic and efficient policies, one sort for display, the other to be pursued—were sloughed over." This window into the "double lives" of states of which Marshall wrote is a less familiar dimension of CI work, one that national security decision makers and scholars alike have largely neglected.
From Marshall's remark, Van Cleave inferred that "the positive intelligence that counterintelligence may supply—that is, how and to what ends governments use the precious resources that their intelligence services represent—can help inform the underlying [national] foreign and defense policy debate, but only if our policy leadership is alert enough to appreciate the value of such insights." She emphasizes that CI is directed not at all hostile actions against one's own countries, but those originated by foreign intelligence services (FIS), a term of art that includes transnational and non-national adversaries.
After the Oklahoma City bombing of 19 April 1995, by Timothy McVeigh, an American, the CI definition reasonably extends to included domestically-originated terrorism. It is fair to say, however, that there are many definitions of terrorism, and, therefore, at least as many definitions of counterterrorism. Some countries assume terrorism is purely a method of non-state actors, where others do not restrict their definition, preferring to focus on the action rather than its sponsorship.
There is also the challenge of what organizations, laws, and doctrines are relevant to protection against all sorts of terrorism in one's own country. See Counterintelligence Force Protection Source Operations (CFSO) for a discussion of special considerations of protection of government personnel and facilities, including in foreign deployments.
In the United States, there is a very careful line drawn between intelligence and law enforcement. In the United Kingdom, there is a distinction between the Security Service (MI5) and the Special Branch of the Metropolitan police ("Scotland Yard"). Other countries also deal with the proper organization of defenses against FIS, often with separate services with no common authority below the head of government
France, for example, builds its domestic counterterror in a law enforcement framework. In France, a senior anti-terror magistrate is in charge of defense against terrorism. French magistrates have multiple functions that overlap US and UK functions of investigators, prosecutors, and judges. An anti-terror magistrate may call upon France's domestic intelligence service Direction de la surveillance du territoire (DST), which may work with the Direction générale de la sécurité extérieure (DGSE), foreign intelligence service.